It includes yin deficiency and yang deficiency.
* Yang deficiency
1, It is mostly a consequence of a congenital defect or improper care after birth , or the over-fatigue or persistance of disease leading to the chronic damage of yang. These cause a pathological state in which yang-Qi is insufficient, the function of the organism declines and warmth is lacked in the course of a disease.
2, The pathogen and the clinical manifestation:
(1) Deficient cold. For example ,chills and cold limbs ,abdominal pain alleviated by warmth and pressure, pale complexion and tongue.
(2) Yang deficiency causes the functions of Zang-fu organs to release,the imbalance of gasification and slow blood circulation. These can be seen by a lower mentality, liking quietness and lying in the bed, weak slow pulse , scanty urine, water swelling and cold pain of the body.
(3) The syndrome of yang deficiency is mainly spleen and kidney deficiency. The kidney provides the material basis for the congenital constitution and the root of yang Qi in the body. The spleen provides the material basis for the acquired constitution and is the source of producing Qi and blood.So the syndrome of yang deficiency mainly manifests spleen and kidney deficiency.
* Yin deficiency
1, The deficiency of yin mostly damages the essence,blood and body fluid and leads to insufficiency of body fluid in chronic disease ,thus yin fails to control yang and is manifested as weak hyperfunction with more produced heat.
2, Its clinical manifestation and etiology are as follows:
(1) Deficient heat .For example ,irritability with burning sensation in the chest, palms and soles ,hectic fever,afternoon fever,night sweating ,thready and rapid pulse.
(2) The syndromes of insufficiency of body fluid.For example ,thinner ,dry throat and mouth ,thirst,dry red tongue and frequent and yellow urination.
(3) Deficient disease is mainly caused by deficient liver and kidney.Kidney yin is considered as the root of the yin fluid of the whole body.Among deficient syndromes in the clinic ,deficiency of liver and kidney yin syndromes appear mostly.